REFORESTATION IN THE NATIONAL MARKET
Reforestation is one of the main agricultural activities in all regions of the country.
What do you need to know
Forest species do well in soils of medium natural fertility, but lack nutrients via fertilization for stable growth.
The reforestation segment in Brazil mainly involves the cultivation of Eucalyptus and Pinus. The use of these crops is intended, above all, for the production of paper and cellulose. Reforestation is one of the main agricultural activities in all regions of the country. In terms of cultivated area, planted forests occupy the 4th place among the main crops, especially in the states of Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.
Although forest species present satisfactory development in soils of average natural fertility, the addition of nutrients via fertilization is essential to reach high levels of development and production of these crops.
Among the macronutrients, Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) deserve special attention, above all, to improve root development. Regarding Micronutrients, Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) are very important, but Boron (B) deserves special mention. It is a microelement that is normally found at very low levels in the soil and forest species respond positively to fertilization with this element.
Cibra has the best lines of differentiated fertilizers to meet the needs of Eucalyptus and Pinus crops, such as Cibrativ. the fertilizer Cibrativ provides high concentrations of Phosphorus and calcium in a gradual and efficient way. When it comes to the balance of micronutrients, we have the line CibraMix, which has several NPK formulations added to release micronutrients and balanced concentrations. It is quality nutrition for your reforestation.
Reforestation’s Nitrogen Deficiency (N)
It is responsible for plant growth, acting directly on photosynthesis, is a constituent part of chlorophyll, vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins.
It is responsible for the dark green color of the leaves. It plays a role in the development of the root system.
Deficiency – Initially, the old leaves have a light green color, which become yellowish and have small reddish spots along the blade. Subsequently, the spots cover the entire limb, causing a generalized reddening.
Reforestation’s Phosphorus Deficiency (P)
Phosphorus is a structural part of carbohydrate esters, phospholipids of cell membranes, coenzymes and nucleic acids.
The energy released by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate radicals of ATP, ADP and AMP molecules is used by the cell in photosynthesis, biosynthesis of starch, fats and the active process of ionic absorption.
Phosphorus is part of energy preservation and transfer molecules such as uridine triphosphate (UTP), cystidine triphosphate (CTP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main nucleotide triphosphate required for starch synthesis.
Deficiency – The old leaves are dark green, purplish near the veins and with dark spots along the blade. In the final stage, scores become necrotic.
Reforestation’s Potassium Deficiency (K)
Enzymatic activator, especially synthetases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, transferases, kinases and aldolases.
It is involved in protein synthesis: plants with low potassium content have low protein content, with accumulation of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids, amides, amines and nitrates. It acts on metabolism (activation of starch synthetase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and other enzymes) and carbohydrate transport.
Deficiency – Initially the old leaves present reddening of the edges that progresses towards the center of the leaf. At this stage, leaf tips often dry out.
Reforestation’s Calcium Deficiency (Ca)
Responsible for the structural and physiological stability of plant tissues, together with other substances, it regulates the permeability processes of cells and tissues; It also has enzyme activator function.
Calcium forms phytates and pectates, which makes it important in maintaining cell wall integrity.
Deficiency – Young leaves show deformation followed by curling. Although much less frequent than B deficiency, the death of the apical buds can occur, and in more advanced stages, pointer drought may occur.
Reforestation’s Magnesium Deficiency (Mg)
It participates in the activation of several enzymes and in the stability of ribosomes; it is also a component of the chlorophyll pigment. More than 300 enzymes are influenced by magnesium.
Deficiency – The old leaves have yellowish spots, with the veins remaining green. In addition to these spots, other, numerous, brown spots of variable size, shape and contours are formed, and interveinal chlorosis and the appearance of necrotic spots may also occur in the most advanced stage.
Reforestation’s Sulfur Deficiency (S)
Fundamental for plants, as it is a nutrient that plays a structural role in several important molecules of metabolism. For example, molecules from the amino acid group such as methionine, cysteine and cystine, which are necessary for the formation of proteins. In addition, they play a structural role in molecules such as lipids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, among others.
And being flavonoids and alkaloids representatives of molecules linked to the secondary metabolism of plants. The secondary metabolites of plants will perform different functions from pigmentation, odor to even defense against the attack of pests and diseases.
Deficiency – Young leaves show slight chlorosis or uniform redness. Chlorosis of young leaves generalized throughout the leaf blade and reddening in the most advanced stage.
Reforestation’s Iron Deficiency (Fe)
It plays a vital role in photosynthesis and plant respiration.
Deficiency – The young leaves present interveinal chlorosis with the appearance of a fine reticulate, that is, the veins are dark green, while the leaf blade is light green.
Reforestation’s Manganese Deficiency (Mn)
It is essential for the synthesis of chlorophyll, it also acts as an enzyme activator, performs the photolysis of water and acts on the development of roots.
Deficiency – Young leaves present interveinal chlorosis with a coarse reticulate appearance, that is, the veins and adjacent areas are dark green while the rest of the leaf blade remains light green.
Reforestation’s Zinc Deficiency (Zn)
It is the cofactor in enzymatic reactions and, therefore, participates in several biochemical cycles of plants, including photosynthesis and sugar formation, protein synthesis, fertility and seed production, growth regulation.
Deficiency – Young leaves become lanceolate, narrow and small. In the apical region, there is an over-budding of the buds with subsequent loss of dominance.
The tree has no dominant pointer, causing a reduction in height growth. Deformation of new leaves without death of the apical buds and pointers, small and lanceolate leaves and short internodes.
Reforestation’s Copper Deficiency (Cu)
Participates in enzymes, assists in photosynthesis and distribution of carbohydrates. It is present in protein metabolism, reduction and nitrogen fixation.
It acts on the lignification of the cell wall, influencing the permeability of xylem vessels. Influence on flowering and fruiting and helps in disease resistance mechanism.
Deficiency – New deformed leaves; descending death of crooked branches, stems and branches; loss of lignification, leaving the branches and stem with a “fallen” aspect. Deformation of the new leaves with the death of the apical buds, budding of the lateral buds and formation of a bulge at the base of the lateral buds and without chlorosis in the leaves.
Reforestation’s Boron Deficiency (B)
It acts in the transport of carbohydrates inside the plants. In addition, there is evidence that it is part of the hormonal mechanisms that are responsible for plant growth.
Deficiency – Young leaves show intense marginal chlorosis followed by drying of the margins. The veins become extremely prominent with subsequent necrosis (a “ribbed” appearance).
The youngest leaves are curled and thick. In the plant, there is a loss of dominance caused by the death of the apical bud. In the final stage, pointer dryness and descending death of the branches are observed, with subsequent super-budding of the lateral buds, resulting in the trunk bifurcation. In some situations, pointer breakage may occur. Deformation of young leaves with the death of apical buds.
Blend of Elements
NPK has multi-nutrients and contains a blend of raw materials to ensure the needs of each crop. It is used to fertilize a whole crop in a single application.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a fertilizer from the potassium group that has about 60% of potassium oxide (K₂O) in its composition, serving the most diverse agricultural crops.
Pragas do reflorestamento
- Formigas cortadeiras
Atta spp., Acromyrmex spp., Sericomyrmex spp., Mycocepurus spp., Trachymyrmex spp
Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae e Termitidae
- Lagartas desfolhadoras
Thyrinteina arnobia, Glena spp., Euselasia
- Besouro amarelo
Costalimaita ferruginea vulgata
Doenças do reflorestamento
Cryphonectria cubensis, Valsa ceratosperma, Cytospora spp, Botryosphaeria ribis
- Mofo cinzento
- Manchas foliares de Cylindrocladium
Cylindrocladium candelabrum, Cylindrocladium ilicicola, Cylindrocladium parasiticum, Cylindrocladium pteridis, Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum
- Tombamento de mudas ou “damping-off”
Cylindrocladium candelabrum, Cylindrocladium clavatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Fusarium spp.
- Podridão de raiz
Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp.
- Podridão de estacas e miniestacas
Cylindrocladium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium spp., Botryosphaeria ribis, Colletotrichum sp.