LIVESTOCK IN THE NATIONAL MARKET
Activity with great economic potential, Brazil is one of the main producers and exporters of meat in the world. In addition to having one of the largest dairy basins in the world.
What do you need to know
Pastures need a large amount of nitrogen to support all Brazilian livestock production.
Currently, Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world, for this reason, the pasture areas in the country are around 154 million hectares, so that they can provide forage to the entire Brazilian herd. Our soils in general are poor soils with low availability of absorbable nutrients for the cycling of these perennial and annual pastures to occur.
In order to supply essential macronutrients, such as Phosphorus (P) and Calcium (Ca) for these forage crops, the Cibrativ fertilizer (Natural Reactive Phosphate) becomes a viable option, as it provides these macronutrients in a balanced way according to the nutritional demand of plants.
Still in the case of forage crops, especially with regard to grasses, we have a high demand for the macronutrient Nitrogen (N).
Cibra has a range of nitrogen fertilizers from the Nitrocap line, which allows us to supply pasture and hay crops, a source of amide nitrogen via Urea, reducing the loss of nutrient volatilization. In addition to also having options with part of the source being ammoniacal nitrogen, more stable in terms of losses and the possibility of input of Sulfur (S), which is also an essential macronutrient for the development of crops.
Pasture and Silage Nitrogen Deficiency (N)
It has a marked effect on the expansion of tissues of the aerial and underground parts, it increases the tolerance of the plant under stress caused by water deficit and extremes of temperature.
It is the nutrient that most impacts the increase in forage production in pastures. Enabling a greater number of animals per hectare.
Deficiency – The plants show slow growth, remaining small, with few tillers and the crude protein content becomes insufficient for animal feed.
Pasture and Silage Phosphorus Deficiency (P)
It participates in a series of metabolic processes, as it is a structural constituent of key molecules such as Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP), Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP), Carbohydrate Esters (Fructose- 6- phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, ribulose-1,5 phosphate, etc.), membrane constituent phospholipids, Pentoses phosphate of the nucleic acids that make up DNA and RNA.
Deficiency – Appears on older leaves, bluish green with purplish or yellowish tones and smaller leaf area. It can also cause delayed flowering and uneven seed maturation that, together, impact the reduction of the plant’s productive capacity and affect the next generation.
Pasture and Silage Potassium Deficiency (K)
It is responsible for the stomatal movement, the k ion acts directly on the opening and closing of the stomata. This control over stomatal opening is directly linked to water absorption, due to the difference in water potential that is caused by water loss.
Participates in photosynthesis and translocation of Synthesizers. Potassium in photosynthesis is linked to the influence on the synthesis of rubisco, the main enzyme responsible for carbon fixation. It is activator of more than 60 enzymes. It also participates in nitrogen metabolism by participating in carbohydrate metabolism. It acts on meristematic growth.
Deficiency – It manifests itself through thin culms and less resistant to overturning, its leaves are yellowish, with necrosis.
Pasture and Silage Calcium Deficiency (Ca)
Responsible for the structural and physiological stability of plant tissues, together with other substances, it regulates the permeability processes of cells and tissues; It also has enzyme activator function.
Calcium forms phytates and pectates, which makes it important in maintaining cell wall integrity.
Deficiency – Appears on young leaves. These leaves are usually smaller than normal, with the surface between the chlorotic veins, with necrotic spots and a tendency to curl downwards.
Pasture and Silage Magnesium Deficiency (Mg)
Mg participates in the activation of several enzymes and in the stability of ribosomes; it is also a component of the chlorophyll pigment.
More than 300 enzymes are influenced by magnesium.
Deficiency – Appears on older leaves. These leaves present the surface between the chlorotic veins, which, with the worsening of the deficiency, turn yellow, however the veins remain green.
Pasture and Silage Sulfur Deficiency (S)
Sulfur is essential for plants, as it is a nutrient that plays a structural role in several important molecules of metabolism.
For example, molecules from the amino acid group such as methionine, cysteine and cystine, which are necessary for the formation of proteins.
Deficiency – It starts in the youngest leaves and resembles those of nitrogen deficiency. A chlorosis that can be accompanied by purplish reddish tones depending on the plant, as well as reduced-size leaves with curling of the margins.
Pasture and Silage Iron Deficiency (Fe)
Activation of the nitrogenaze enzyme. It acts on the metabolism of nucleic acids. It has catalytic and structural functions and participates in the formation of chlorophyll.
Deficiency – It starts in the new leaves, in the highest parts. It is also common to notice that only the veins of the leaves remain green, while the blades turn yellow. In severe cases of iron deficiency, necrosis and leaf fall occur, leading to total defoliation.
Pasture and Silage Manganese Deficiency (Mn)
Participates in photosynthetic processes Formation of bridges between ATP and enzymes Involved in oxidation-reduction processes.
Deficiency – Older leaves, leaf bases and stems show brownish black spots as a consequence of MnO2 accumulations. Subsequently, these spots present chlorotic edges.
Pasture and Silage Zinc Deficiency (Zn)
Influence on permeability of membranes. It helps the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. Cellular component stabilizer. Component of several enzymes.
Deficiency – The leaves are small and their tips are usually white. The general growth of the plant is stopped (dwarfing). The older and central leaves have chlorotic spots with necrotic areas.
Pasture and Silage Copper Deficiency (Cu)
Influence on the permeability of xylem vessels to water. It participates in many physiological processes.
Controls DNA and RNA production It is involved in disease resistance. It acts as an enzyme activator.
Deficiency – Symptoms initially appear on the young leaves of the plants. They become wilted and curled. The petiole and stems of the youngest leaves are curved downwards. The leaves do not have the same green color. They become yellowish or lighter green, and then suffer yellowing.
Pasture and Silage Boron Deficiency (B)
Carbohydrate metabolism Sugar transport across membranes; Synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and phytohormones Formation of cell walls Cell division.
Deficiency – Appears on new leaves, with a reduction in size and deformation of the same.
Blend of Elements
NPK has multi-nutrients and contains a blend of raw materials to ensure the needs of each crop. It is used to fertilize a whole crop in a single application.
Urea is a concentrated granulated fertilizer that provides nitrogen (N) in the amide form for the most diverse crops.
Pragas da pastagem
Pragas subterrâneas ou pragas de solo:
são insetos que se alimentam de sementes,
após a semeadura, e das raízes das plantas
Homoptera-Cercopidae, Zulia entreriana, Deois flavopicta, Deois schach
- Formigas cortadeiras
Atta bisphaerica, Atta capiguara
- Cochonilha dos capins
- Percevejo das gramíneas
- Lagartas desfolhadoras
Mocis latipes, Spodoptera frugiperda, Pseudaletia sequax
Rhamnatocerus sp., Schistocerca sp.
Proconitermes sp., Cornitermes cumulans
Doenças da pastagem
- Carvão da braquiária
- Ferrugem da braquiária
Puccinia levis var. panici-sanguinalis
- Mancha foliar de Bipolaris maydis
- Antracnose do estilosantes
- Mortalidade do capim-marandu
Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. e Fusarium spp.